Schneider Kreuznach's Neutral Density Filters attenuate light by absorption. By careful control of the thickness of the filter material there is a wide range of filters with different attenuation levels available. The transmission variations over the visible wavelength range are very small to avoid effects on color balance.
In imaging applications ND filters are used to adjust the intensity to an appropriate level to avoid camera overexposure. Using a filter instead of stopping down the iris of the lens leaves unaffected other imaging parameters such as depth of field and diffraction limitations.
Neutral Density Filter Number
B+W Neutral Density Filter 101
The lightest B+W Neutral Density Filter attenuates the light by one f-stop (long density 0.3),which can be beneficial, for instance, for the correct exposure of high-speed films when the brightness of the subject is till too high for the fastest shutter speed and the smallest aperture. It is recommended especially as a complement to B+W Neutral Density Filter 102 for fine adjustments. The filter factor is 2x.
B+W Neutral Density Filter 102
The B+W Neutral Density Filter reduces the light by two f-stops (log density 0.6), and it is the most popular ND filter in photographic work. It offers many benefits, for instance f/4 instead of f/8 for selective sharpness instead of a great depth of field, or 1/15 s instead of 1/60 s for a flowing instead of a " frozen" waterfall. It has excellent color neutrality, costs less than the denser filters, and is recommended as part of a basic outfit. The filter factor is 4x.
B+W Neutral Density Filter 103
This quite strong gray filter reduces the light by up to three f-stops,, equivalent to a filter factor of 8x. It offers more options than weaker gray filters. This is already sufficient for successful time-exposure effects, and it can also be regarded as a universal gray filter in digital photography. White balance with the filter ensures optimum color neutrality. Tip: Remember to use a tripod for longer exposure times.
B+W Neutral Density Filter 106
Without 106 Filter
With 106 Filter
With its light reduction by six f-stops, filter factor 64x, this filter allows even more extreme experiments. This includes time-exposure effects such as light trails or walking people who become blurred or invisible. A physically induces higher red transmission produces a slightly warm tone. If necessary, this can be eliminated by white balance or an image programe.
B+W Neutral Density Filter 110
With a light reduction of ten f-stops, this B+W Neutral Density Filter has a slightly stronger warm tone than the ND106. Its principal field of application is the observation and documentation of industrial processes with extreme brightness, such as steel furnaces, incinerators, glowing filaments in halogen- and other bulbs. The filter factor is 1000x.
B+W Neutral Density Filter 113
With its light reducing capability of 13 f-stops, this B+W Neutral Density Filter is used in astronomy for photographs of the sun and for recording the relative movements of heavenly bodies as light traces in extremely long exposure times. For photographs of the sun, this filter must be positioned in front of the lens and under no circumstances should it be located near the primary focus in front of , or behind the eyepiece because of the intense hear at those locations. It must not be used for observation of the sun (danger of blindness) due to its greater transmission in the infrared range. The filter factor is 10000x.
B+W Neutral Density Filter 120
With its light reducing capability of 20 f-stops, this B+W Neutral Density Filter is used for the same astro-photographic applications as ND filter 113 when an even greater light attenuation is required. In spite of its much higher density, this filter too, must not be used for visual observation because of its transmission in the infrared range. The filter factor is 1000000x.